Vision systems in the 60’s

Vision throughout the 1960’s was a developing industry with a big push for video technology. All these inventions had a big impact on the world and changed it greatly. 


The camera can be traced back before the introduction of photography. Cameras have evolved and continue to change through many generations. In the 1960’s many cameras were developed and enhanced. This consisted of EG and G developing the extreme depth underwater camera. It was to be used by the U.S Navy. However since the 60’s it has developed in further than the EG and G camera. At that time only the U.S Navy was to use it but now over the years it is now available the public.


The picture above shows that of an underwater camera used for Nirvana’s album Never Mind. The photographer Kirk Weddle shot Nirvana’s Nevermind album cover with an underwater camera to show something different in the entertainment industry and capture the audience.


The video cassette recorder also known as a VCR or a video recorder is a device used to record analog video or analog audio from television. The video cassette recorder was useful for families etc for more of an convenient time if they are busy while their favorite show was playing. Toshiba announced in 1959 a new method called a helical scan. This was a method of recording as well but first implemented in reel to reel video tape recorders but later used in cassette tapes.


The cassette recorder was later replaced with a DVD player.


The DVD was available to the public as early as the middle of 1996. It played discs both DVD-Video and DVD-Audio. The DVD player was connected to the television which families was able to watch the content of the DVD. The DVD could either consist of a movie, recorded TV show or many other contents.



A image projector was used to project images, or moving images onto a surface, whether it be a wall or commonly a projector screen. It would create the image through a small transparent lens which a light would shine through. The newest most common type of project today is called a video projector. These earlier types of projectors were mostly replaced with digital video projectors throughout the 1990’s and early 2000’s.





Beyoncé’s song consists of a structure just like any pop mainstream song these days. This includes;

-Verse 1.

-Pre chorus.


-Verse 2.

-Pre chorus.





Tone colour;


-Although not a brass instrument, Beyoncé’s voice is strong, powerful and grand.

-Voice sounds as if its raspy.

-Single voice.

-Accompanied by instruments

-Electronic music involved; synthesiser


-Smooth yet rough.






-Pitch; melodic rise and fall, melodic repetition, high register, is played in major keys.


I decided to choose an Ella Fitzgerald song due to the fact that she is a jazz queen! I chose the comp part to be jazz scat so decided to use Ella Fitzgerald’s Get Happy to get some ideas and search more into jazz.

Dynamics and expressive techniques;

– Jazz vocal techniques including:

sliding, rubarto, melisma’s, glissando’s.

– Also the use of mezzopiano, mezzoforte, legato, accented.

– Dynamic contrasts for example ‘Hallelujah’ in the introduction and ‘get happy’ in the chorus.


-Melodic repetition in the chorus and bridging chorus.

-This song is in a major key as it is a happy sounding scale.

-High register.

-Melodic rise and fall.

-Angular rise and fall. (2;54)


-Texture quite thick due to the band being full and big.

-Introduction with hallelujah is mellow as the band is playing low sustained notes, thus is contrasted with the vocals.

-Leading up to the chorus the texture increases which is thick as the dynamics are loud and their are more energised rhythms and melodies.


-Similar motions as I think sometimes the trumpet and vocals are heading in the same direction and sound the same in their melodies.

-Multiple layers.


Singing includes many dynamic and expressive techniques that are used in songs to make it interesting and not flat, boring and to bring colour out in the piece.

These include;


(Sliding around the pitch to slightly distort it, often used in jazz.)


(A continuous slide between two notes. Can be a short or long distance.)



(Sudden burst/emphasis on the sound.)


(The upper register of a male and female voice.)


(A quiver or waver of the voice on one note, usually long.)

-Vocal percussion (barking like a dog)




-Tongue rolls



(vocals moved in steps)

-Short and attached staccato


(sudden strong emphasis)




-Flutter tonguing



Singing, being a common, most known instrument, is and has been used in multiple genres. some most known genres include, rock, punk, opera, folk, Celtic and many more. But their a few that should be pointed out, more in depth.These include:

-Doo Wop; Doo wop consists of a vocal based rhythm and blues music. In the 1940’s this was developed in Africa America which achieved mainstream popularity in 50’s and early 60’s. This is much like A Capella as their was sometimes little or no instrumentation, or just a simple beat.

-Traditional Pop; traditional pop consists of Western popular music in the mid 1950’s. Right after the swing era most of the vocalists and band members became a part of this periods popular music. Some of the big vocalists in this era consisted of, Frank Sinatra, Doris Day, Ella Fitzgerald, and Dinah Shore.

-Vocal jazz; Vocal jazz includes the singer improvising or through scat to make their voice sound like the instruments being played. Most performances were only solo vocalist but also could contain a very small group of singers also.


The voice seems natural and even constitutive of our humanity. Up until 900 A.D vocal music was never recorded and was only heard from person to person. It is so basic its origins are were long lost in antiquity and predate the development of spoken language. The voice is presumably the first original musical instrument and it is very likely that the earliest singers were individualistic and improvisatory.

Throughout time vocal music (singing) has developed throughout the middle ages, renaissance, modern day, western and non western eras. Vocal music takes on distinctly different forms in and throughout many cultures. These cultures include African music, Indigenous music, Hina (Asian traditional singing) and many more. Over many years these forms of cultural singing have made their way into modern day music. For example, the growth of the popularity of Latin music has been expanded with artists such as Enrique Iglesias, Rikki Martin and J-Lo.

Singing has evolved over time due to many things such as more technological advances, society (things we sing about), new entertainment styles and new platforms, and it will constantly evolve because of these things. The potential growth of singing is far from being exhausted and is greater than ever before. Their is so much more to come.